Dangerous goods.

International transport of dangerous goods

When shipping or transporting dangerous goods, you must know the international regulations, which regulates the handling of these special goods, which could be harmful or represent a danger in many ways. Failure to comply with international regulations on dangerous goods not only could result in unfortunate accidents and major damages, but also fines can be obtained, as well as failure to take safety and inspection measures, for any incident

Our logistics advisors have enough training for coordinate dangerous goods.

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Dangerous goods classification

The system used is that prepared by the UN Expert Group which has served as the basis for the elaboration of most of international and national regulations. The substances or products subject to this classification are those considered in the ADR and RID regulations.

The system employed classifies dangerous goods into classes of substances.

Said classification is the following:

  • Class 1 Explosive substances and articles
  • Class 2 Gases
  • Class 3 Flammable liquid substances
  • Class 4.1 Flammable solid substances
  • Class 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion.
  • Class 4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
  • Class 5.1 Oxidizing materials
  • Class 5.2 Organic peroxides
  • Class 6.1 Toxic materials
  • Class 6.2 Infectious substances
  • Class 7 Radioactive material
  • Class 8 corrosive substances
  • Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous sustances
  • Class Toxic and dangerous wastes

On the other hand, these regulations establish two types of goods according to the necessary requirements in their transport: restrictive and non-restrictive classes.
a) Restrictive Classes: Classes 1 and 7
Theses are goods to be transported, must be specifically named and authorized in the ADR/RID. Of these, some are allowed to transport under certain conditions fixed by the mentioned regulations and the rest are not allowed to transport.
b) Non-Restrictive Classes: Classes 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 8 and 9
In these, transport by general groups is authorized. It is not therefore necessary that merchandise is explicitly named to be authorized for transportation. Some of them are excluded by notes inserted in the respective margins of the regulations and others are allowed to transport in the conditions set in their marginal. Not mentioned are not considered as dangerous goods and are admitted to transport without special conditions.

Each of the classes is developed in more detail below:

Class 1. Explosive substances and articles

Within this class are some of the most dangerous products. Including not only explosives per se, but also substances such as some metal salts, which by themselves or in certain mixtures or when exposed to heat, shock or friction, can cause explosions, generally followed by fire. Some substances can become explosives due to chemical changes in their structure (auto-oxidation) with no apparent cause. Their transport, due to their special characteristics, has a special regulation.
These goods, in addition to being regulated by the ADR and RID regulations, must comply with aspects related to transportation included in the Explosives Regulation.
Classification:
Explosive substances and articles of Class 1 are the following:

⦁ Explosive substances: solid or liquid substances (or mixtures of substances) capable by chemical reaction of producing gases at such a temperature, pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.
⦁ Pyrotechnic substances: substances or mixtures of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonating self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions.
⦁ Explosive articles: articles containing one or more explosive substances and/or pyrotechnic substances.

⦁ Substances and articles not mentioned in a) or b) which are manufactured for the purpose of produce a practical effect by explosion or for pyrotechnical purposes.
Explosive substances and objects of class 1 shall be included in a division and in one of the following compatibility groups, and their classification code is formed by the number of division and the letter of the incompatibility group.

The divisions are as follows:
1.1 Substances and articles presenting a risk of mass explosion hazard. It affects almost instantaneously the entire load.
1.2 Substances and articles presenting a projection risk without risk of mass explosion hazard.
1.3 Substances and articles presenting a risk of fire, with a slight risk of flame effects or blast or projection production or both, but without the risk of mass explosion hazard.
1.4 Substances and articles which only present a small risk of explosion in the event of ignition or prime during the transport. The effects are essentially limited to packages and usually do not result in the projection of fragments of considerable size nor over great distances. An external fire should not mean the virtually instantaneous explosion of almost all the contents of the packages.
1.5 Very low-sensitivity substances involving a mass explosion hazard with a sensitivity such that in normal conditions of transport there is very little chance of detonation or switching from combustion to detonation
1.6 Extremely unsightly articles which they do not supposed to be a risk of mass explosion. Such articles shall contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

The compatibility groups are as follows:
A Primary explosive substance
B Article containing a primary explosive substance and not having two or more effective protective features.
C Propellant explosive substance or other secondary deflagrating explosive substance or object containing said explosive substance.
D Secondary detonating explosive substance or black powder, or object containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, in any case without detonation means or propellant charge or object containing a primary explosive substance and has at least two effective security devices.
E Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, without priming means, with propellant charge
F Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, with its own means of priming, with propellant charge.
G Pyrotechnical substances or articles containing a pyrotechnical composition; or well, is an article containing both an explosive substance and a luminous, incendiary, tear-producing or smoking composition.
H Article containing an explosive substance and also white phosphorus.
J Article containing an explosive substance and also a flammable liquid or gel.
K Article containing an explosive substance and also a toxic chemical agent.
L Explosive substance or article containing an explosive charge and also presents a particular risk and which requires the isolation of each type.
N Articles containing only extremely low sensitivity detonating materials
S Substance or article packed or designed in such a way that any dangerous effect due to accidental operation is limited to the packaging unless the packaging has been damaged by fire, in which case the effects of the blast wave must be sufficiently reduced to not obstruct firefighting or other emergency measures in the immediate vicinity of the package.

Class 2. Gases

Class 2 substances are considered those having a vapor pressure greater tan 300kPa (3 bar) at 50 ºC: or is in gaseous state at 20 ºC, at the standard pressure of 101,3 kPa. In this denomination there are various types of products which may present very different risks. There are flammable and non-flammable, toxic and non-toxic. Also there are flammable and toxic (at the same time). Another important family for the dangerous ones are the chemically unstable ones that can be also toxic and non-toxic.
Classification:
Substances and articles of class 2 are subdivided as follows:
⦁ Compressed gases: gases whose critical temperature is below 20 ºC, compressed air, compressed nitrogen, compressed oxygen, etc.
⦁ Liquefied gases: gases whose critical temperature is equal to or greater than 20 ºC. Chlorine, ammonia, propane, butane, etc.
⦁ Refrigerated liquefied gases: gases, which when transported, are partially liquid because of its low temperature. Refrigerated Liquid Neon
⦁ Dissolved gases under pressure: gases, which when transported, are dissolved in a solvent. Ammonia in water, acetylene in acetone, etc.
⦁ Aerosol generators and reduced capacity containers containing gases. Compressed gas Cartridges.
⦁ Other articles containing gas under pressure.
⦁ Non-compressed gases not subject to special provisions.
⦁ Empty containers and empty tanks
All gases are assigned to one of the following groups depending on the hazardous properties they present:
A suffocating: non-oxidizing, non-flammable and non-toxic gas that dilutes or replaces oxygen normally present in the atmosphere.

O oxidizing: Can cause or favor more than air, in general by the addition of oxygen, the combustion of other substances.
F flammable: gas which at a temperature of 20 ºC and a pressure of 101,3 kPa, is flammable in mixtures of no more than 13% (volume) with air or has a flammability band with air of at least 12 points percentage, regardless of its lower flammability limit.
T toxic: gas whose CL50 for acute toxicity is less than or equal to 5,000 mL/m3 (ppm).
TF toxic, flammable
TC toxic, corrosive
TO toxic, oxidizing
TFC toxic, flammable, corrosive
TOC toxic, oxidizing, corrosive

Class 3. Flammable liquid substances

They are commonly referred as flammables, highly flammable, spontaneously flammable in air, etc. In the case of liquids, their degree of danger is inversely proportional to their Flash Point, meaning, the lower the flash point, the greater their danger.
They are usually liquids that can burn by the effect of a flame or by an increase in temperature. gasolines, diesel, mineral oils, benzene, varnishes, alcohols, etc.
This definition applies to materials and objects containing substances that:

I. Have an I. Melting point equal to or less than 20 ° C at a pressure of 101,3 kPa.II. Have, at 50 ° C, an II. Maximum vapor pressure of 300 kPa (3 bar) and are not completely gaseous at 20 ° C and at the standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.III. Have a III. Maximum flash point of 61°C.Iv. Melted solid substances whose flash-point is above 61 ° C and is delivered for carriage or transported hot at a temperature equal to or greater than their flash point.

These substances are subdivided as follows:
A Substances with a flash point below 23 ºC, non-toxic, non-corrosive
B Substances with a flash point below 23 ºC, toxics
C Substances with a flash point below 23 ºC, corrosives
D Substances with a flash point below 23 ºC, toxics and corrosives, and articles containing such substances
E Substances with a flash point of 23 ºC to 61 ºC, limit values included, which may present a lower level of toxicity or corrosiveness.
F Substances and preparations used as pesticides with a flash point below 23 ºC
G Substances with a flash point above 61 ºC, transported or delivered to the hot transports at a temperature equal or greater than its flash point

H Empty containers
Classification, according to its degree of danger:
They are classified, according to their degree of danger as follows:
⦁ Letter(a) very dangerous substances: flammable liquid substances with a boiling point of no more than 35 ºC, and flammable liquid substances with a flash point below 23 ºC, which are either ⦁ very toxic ⦁or ⦁ highly corrosive according to the criteria ⦁ of regulations
⦁ Letter (b) dangerous substances: flammable liquid substances that have a flash point below 23 ºC and are not classified under a) excepting con substances of marginal 2301, 5º c) of ADR
⦁ Letter (c) substances having a minor degree of danger: flammable liquid substances having a flash point  from 23 ºC to 61 ºC, including limit values, as well as substances of marginal 2301,5º (c) of ADR.

Class 4.1. Flammable solid substances

They are also flammable solid substance those able to burn by effects of heat, open flames or sparkles. Under the action of the heat may form explosive mixtures of vapor, air and some toxic gases. They are: wood, sawdust, wood pulp, sulphur, celluloid, phosphorus compounds, etc. In this class are included:
⦁ Easily flammable solid substances and articles and those who ignite under effect of sparkle projection or can cause a fire by rubbing.
⦁ Spontaneous reaction substances, which may suffer (at normal or elevated temperatures) a strongly exothermic decomposition caused by the transport or by contact with impurities.
⦁ Substances related to spontaneous reaction of substances that are distinguished from the latter by having an exothermic decomposition point above 75 ºC and can experience a strongly exothermic decomposition and can (in certain containers/packages) response to relative criteria to explosive substances from class 1.
⦁ Explosive substances moistened with enough water or alcohol or contain enough plasticizer or phlegmatization for neutralize their explosive properties.
These substances are subdivided as follows:
A Flammable solid organic substances and articles
B Flammable solid inorganic  substances and articles
C Explosive substances in non-explosive  state
D Substances related to spontaneous reaction substances
E Spontaneous reaction substances that do not require temperature regulation.
F Spontaneous reaction substances; they require temperature regulation.
G Empty packaging/containers
Classification according to degree of danger:
They are classified according to danger degree as:
a. Very dangerous
b. Dangerous
c. Those with a lower degree of danger

Class 4.2. Substances liable to spontaneous combustion

This class includes:
⦁ Substances that may experiment spontaneous inflammation (pyrophorics): are substances, mixtures and solutions (liquids or solids) that in contact with air including small quantities ignite within 5 minutes.
⦁ Substances that experience spontaneous heating: they are substances, objects, mixtures and solutions that when in contact with air, without supply of energy, are susceptible to heat. These substances can only ignite in noticeable quantities (several kilograms) and after a long length of time (several hours or days.)
These substances are subdivided as follows:
A Spontaneously flammable organic substances
B Spontaneously flammable inorganic substances
C Spontaneously flammable organometallic combinations
D Empty containers
Classification according to degree of danger:
According to its degree of danger in:
a. Spontaneously flammable (pyrophoric)
b. Experiencing spontaneous heating
c. Experiencing little spontaneous heating
They may be solid pyrophoric organic (UN 2846), liquid pyrophoric organic (NU 2845), corrosive and organometallic combinations, etc. They are: White phosphorus, phosphorus combinations with certain metals (alkaline or alkaline earth), greasy or oily fabrics, hydrides of lithium, sodium y aluminum, etc.

Class 4.3. Substances which in contact with water, emit flammable gases

They are substances that, by reaction with water, emit flammable gases that can form explosive mixtures with air, as well as the objects that contain materials of this class.
They may be organics, organometallic combinations, and substances in organic and inorganic solvents.

These substances are subdivided as follows:
A Organic materials, organometallic compounds and substances in solvents which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
B Inorganic substances, which in contact with water, emit flammable gases
C Objects containing substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
D Empty containers
Classification according to degree of danger:
In view of their danger, they are:
a. very dangerous
b. dangerous
c. which have a lower degree of danger
Chlorosilanes, sodium, potassium, alloys of these, metal hydrides, calcium carbide, etc.

Class 5.1. Oxidizing Substances

Oxidizing substances are those substances which, although not combustible, may in general, by releasing oxygen, cause or favor the combustion of other materials.
These materials are subdivided as follow:
A Liquid oxidizing materials and their aqueous solutions
B Solid oxidizing materials and their aqueous solutions
C Empty containers
Classification according to degree of danger:
According to their degree of danger they are:
a. Very oxidizing substances
b. Oxidizing substances
c. Slight oxidizing substances
The most used substances are: stabilized hydrogen peroxide or solutions, perchloric acid and its salts, chlorites, hypochlorite, permanganates, percarbonates, etc.

Class 5.2. Organic peroxides

Class 5.2 refers to organic substances containing the bivalent structure -0-0- and can be considered as derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, which one or two of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic radicals.
They are oxidizing substances like the previous one, but also they are combustibles and relatively unstable, that can give off oxygen when decomposing, which favors considerably the combustion. Therefore they are special danger because on one hand they are oxidizing and on the other hand they are combustibles.
They are classified in seven types (from type A to type G) according to the degree of danger they present. Some organic peroxides can only be transported in conditions of temperature regulation, calculated from the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) of each type of peroxide.
Classification:
They are classified in two major groups according to their need for temperature regulation in transport:
⦁ Organic peroxides which their temperature regulation is not required: ranging from Nos. 3101 to 3110 solids or liquids.
⦁ Organic peroxides, which are required temperature regulations: ranging from Nos NU 3110 to 3120 solids or liquids.

Class 6.1. Toxic substances

They are a huge variety of substances that, often, have neither chemical affinities nor common physical characteristics and that only present in common that they are toxic to the human being, the animals and the environment. They are substances known by experience, or admittedly by animal tests, and in relatively small amounts and by a single action or of short duration, that can damage the health of the human being or cause his/her death by inhalation, absorption by skin, or ingestion.
Also within this toxicity, they are distinguished by the pathways of disease:
a. Toxic by inhalation
b. Toxic if swallowed
c. Toxic by skin absorption
They can also be subdivided in:
⦁ Toxic dusts
⦁ Toxic gases
⦁ Toxic gases without odor
⦁ Harmful vapors and dusts.
⦁ Those that give off toxic gases when in contact with water, acids, or under the influence of other substances
These materials are subdivided as follows:
A Very toxic substances by inhalation, with a flash point below 23 ºC.
B Organic substances by inhalation, with a flash point equal or greater than 23 ºC or non-flammable organic substances
C Organometallic compounds and carbonyls
D Inorganic substances that in contact with water (as well with the environmental humidity), with aqueous solutions or with acids, may release toxic gases and other toxic substances that react with water.
E Other inorganic substances and metal salts of organic substances.
F Substances and preparations used as pesticides.
G Substances intended for laboratories and experimentation, as well as for manufacture of pharmaceutical products, provided that they are not listed elsewhere in this class-
H Empty containers
Classification according to degree of danger:
They can be according to degree of danger:
a. Very toxic substances
b. Toxic substances
c. Substances with a lower degree of toxicity
Examples: stabilized hydrogen cyanide and solutions, carbonyls, halogenated hydrocarbons, anti-knock mixtures for motor fuels, cyanides, nitrides, arsenic compounds, mercury compounds, etc.
The attached table provides classification criteria based on the values of lethal doses (DL50) and lethal concentration (CL50)
Subdivision into groups in sections Toxicity by ingestion

DL50(mg/kg) Toxicity by skin absorption  DL50 (mg/kg) Toxicity by inhalation CL50 Dusts and mists (mg/L)
Very toxics a) £ 5 £ 40 £ 0,5
Toxics b) > 5-50 > 40-200 > 0,5-2
They have a lower degree of toxicity c) Solid substances
> 50-200 > 200-1000 > 2-10
Liquid substances
> 50-500

Class 6.2. Infectious Substances

These agents are defined as microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickets, parasites and fungi) or as recombined microorganisms (hybrids or mutants), which are known or are suspected to cause infectious diseases to animals or humans. They can be skin, animal remains, viscera, virus preparations or cultures, bacteria, etc.
These materials are subdivided as follows:
A Infectious substances with potential of high risk
B Other infectious substances
C Empty containers

Class 7. Radioactive Material

They are substances that emit particles and radiations capable to cause damages in cells of tissues.

All of them are included in class 7 but they also include nuclear fuels, radioactive isotopes and all the compounds containing radioactive materials. Uranium, thorium and all a, b, particle emitters and nuclear radiations, the emitted radiation intensities (and therefore according to the degrees of container shielding) they are classified into three categories:
⦁ Category I, White
⦁ Category II, Yellow
⦁ Category III, Yellow

Class 8. Corrosive substances

They are substances that because of their chemical action, damage the epithelial tissue of the skin and mucosa when they come in contact with them, or in case of drain, they can damage other goods or means of transport or destroy them, being able to cause other dangers. It also applies to substances that only produce a corrosive liquid when it comes into contact with water or, with air natural humidity, produce corrosive vapors or mists.
The term corrosive does not determine a specific type of products processing certain common, chemical or reactive structural characteristics. There are liquids, gases and other solids. Some are acids, others bases and corrosive salts. Most of them are inorganic but there are also organic.

Classification according to their degree of danger:
They are classified according to their degree of corrosiveness in:
a. Highly corrosive substances
b. Corrosive substances
c. Slightly corrosive substances
Given its acid, basic, etc. form, they are classified in:
⦁ Acid corrosive substances: they are the most important corrosive substances by the volume of its production and transport in Spain. There are huge varieties, there are inorganic acids: sulfuric acid, nitric, hydrochloric, mixtures, sulfonic, perchloric, hydrofluoric, etc. And organic acids: acetic, formic, organic halides, chlorosilanes, etc.
⦁ Basic corrosive substances: they are also highly transported. There are also inorganic: Sodium and potassium hydroxides, sodium hypochlorite, etc. Organic bases: alkyl and aryl amines, polyamines, etc. Bases are extremely corrosive.
⦁ Other corrosive substances: the most important ones are Hydrogen Peroxide solutions and hypochlorite solutions. Hydrogen Peroxide solutions of less than 60% are considered to be corrosive and not from Class 5.1. Solutions of less than 8% are not considered dangerous substances and they are not affected by these regulations. Hypochlorite solutions of less than 16% of active chlorine belong to this class. Those with less than 5% of active chlorine are not affected by these regulations.

Class 9. Miscellaneous dangerous substances

Covers substances and articles which, during carriage, present a danger not covered by the headings of other classes.
They are subdivided as follows:
A Substances which on inhalation are fine dust, may endanger health Are asbestos and its mixtures, blue, brown and white
B Substances and appliances which, in the event of fire, may form dioxins: are PCBs and PCTs, polychlorinated and polyhalogenated biphenyls and terphenyls and mixtures thereof (Mixtures with a PCB or PCT content of not more than 50 mg / kg, they are not affected by these regulations). In addition, equipment containing PCBs or mixtures such as transformers, capacitors, hydraulic appliances containing certain types of oils containing pyralenes or similar materials.
C Substances involving flammable vapors: expandable polymers containing flammable liquids.
D Lithium batteries
E Lifesaving equipment: are those containing smoke signals or other signaling substances.
F Dangerous substances for the environment: These are liquid and solid pollutants of the aquatic environment and solutions which are not classified in the other classes. Chlorinated paraffins, pesticides, etc. They are also genetically modified organisms and microorganisms.
G Substances transported at elevated temperature
H Others substances which present a risk during transport but they do not correspond to the definitions of any other class
I Empty containers and packagingClassification according to their degree of danger:
According to their danger degree they are:
Letter b) dangerous substances
Letter c) substances having minor danger
Toxic and Dangerous Wastes
Although for purpose of transportation, toxic and hazardous waste (RTP) may be included in one of the classes defined above, and therefore regulated by the ADR and RID regulations, due to their special regulation they are included here to be assimilated to the kinds of dangerous goods.Containers or vessels containing toxic and hazardous waste must be clearly, legibly and indelibly labeled, at least in the official language of the state. The label shall include:
a. The waste identification code
b. Name, address and telephone number of the holder of the waste.
c. Dates of packaging
d. Nature of risks present in wastes.
Classification: The RTP classifications serve several characteristics:
⦁ Generic RTP types: appear 41 types of solids, liquids, sludges, and compressed or liquefied gases.
⦁ Constituents can be toxic and dangerous depending on the quantities and form of presentation of the waste: they appear from C1 to C54 (non-correlative) which designates the main component (s) of the waste or chemical families to which they can be assigned.⦁ Classification by characteristics. ⦁. The classification being more comparable to that of mm. pp is the one that is included.
The characteristics and the denomination of the RTP are the following:
H1 Explosives: substances and preparations which may explode under the effect of flame or which are more sensitive to shocks or frictions than dinitrobenzene.
H2 Oxidants: substances and preparations which exhibit highly exothermic reactions on contact with other substances, in particular flammable substances.
H3-A Highly flammable: substances and preparations having a flash point below 21 ° C.
H3-B Flammable: liquid substances and preparations having a flash-point of not less than 21 ° C and not more than 55 ° C.
H4 Irritants: Non-corrosive substances and preparations which may cause inflammation by immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with skin or mucous membranes.
H5 Harmful: substances and preparations which, by inhalation, ingestion or skin penetration, may pose hazards of limited severity to health.
H6 Toxics: substances and preparations (including preparations and highly toxic substances) which, by inhalation, ingestion or skin penetration, may lead to serious, acute or chronic risks, including death.H7 Carcinogens: substances and preparations which, by inhalation, ingestion or skin penetration, may cause cancer or increase its frequency.
H8 Corrosives: substances and preparations which may destroy living tissues upon contact with them.
H9 Infectious: substances that contain viable microorganisms or their toxins, which are known or are reasonably believed to cause disease in humans or other living organisms.
H10 Toxics for reproduction: substances and preparations which, by inhalation, ingestion or skin penetration, may induce non-hereditary congenital malformations or increase their frequency.
H11 Mutagenics: substances and preparations which, by inhalation, ingestion or skin penetration, may produce heritable genetic defects or increase their frequency.
H12 Substances or preparations emitting toxic or very toxic gases when in contact with air, water or acid.
H13 Substances susceptible after disposal, to give rise to another substance by any means, eg leachate, having any of the characteristics listed above.H14 Dangerous for the environment: substances and preparations presenting or likely to present immediate or delayed environmental risks.
The Toxic and Hazardous Waste Regulations establishes a series of requirements regarding the transportation independently of the provisions of the dangerous goods transport regulations, that is to say, they increase the conditions required for their transfer in addition to those contemplated in the ADR and RID.

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